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    The Squire Roses are a youth sorority run by individual state councils for Catholic girls between the ages of 10 and One representative from each State Council for the first two thousand insurance members, and one representative for the first two thousand associate members, and one representative for each additional two thousand insurance members or major part thereof and one representative for each additional two thousand associate members or major part thereof represented in said State Council as shall appear from the records of the Supreme Secretary.

    This excess amount of insurance membership will then be applied toward an additional associate member delegate pursuant to the requirements of this section.

    But no State Council shall be entitled to more than eight elected representatives to the Supreme Council. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Not to be confused with Knights of St Columba. History of the Knights of Columbus. Charitable activities of the Knights of Columbus. Supreme Officers of the Knights of Columbus.

    Supreme Knight of the Knights of Columbus. Political activity of the Knights of Columbus. List of Knights of Columbus. Murray , Comptroller of the Currency , as Grand Knight.

    Keane , first rector of the university — , and later Archbishop of Dubuque, Iowa. Retrieved June 28, Retrieved June 19, Retrieved March 18, Knights of Columbus Supreme Council.

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    Retrieved August 9, Archived from the original PDF on May 23, Retrieved December 3, Retrieved February 2, Retrieved February 6, Pledge Support for NRA".

    Catholic Laymens Association of Georgia. Re-elect Hart Supreme Knight". Knights of Columbus Maryland State Council.

    Louisiana Ladies Auxiliary Association. Retrieved March 4, New Orleans Clarion Herald. Retrieved February 25, Retrieved February 26, Supreme Chaplain of the Knights of Columbus".

    Retrieved November 15, Archived from the original on November 16, Retrieved February 1, Archived from the original on October 4, The American Presidency Project.

    Gerhard Peters and John T. University of California, Santa Barbara". Retrieved December 26, Retrieved 23 March Catholic University of America.

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    The Grantsmanship Center Magazine. Archived from the original on April 15, Retrieved November 6, Supreme Council, Knights of Columbus.

    Retrieved June 26, Archived from the original on March 4, Retrieved August 21, Retrieved March 6, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.

    Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors. Archived from the original on March 7, Retrieved June 16, The National Museum of the Marine Corps.

    April 3, https: Retrieved January 10, Archived from the original on May 15, Catholic Daughters of America. Daughters of Mary Immaculate International.

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    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: The Knights believed in the unity of the interests of all producing groups and sought to enlist in their ranks not only all labourers but everyone who could be truly classified as a producer.

    They championed a variety of…. History of the AFL. The Knights of Labor KOL , at the time the largest and most successful union organization in the country, was blamed for the incident.

    While the KOL also had sought an eight-hour day and had called several strikes to achieve that goal, its involvement in the riot….

    There was no particular significance to the date, and McGuire said that it was chosen because it fell roughly halfway between the Fourth of July holiday and Thanksgiving.

    Its self-imposed mission was to Many were killed while crossing through Muslim-controlled territory during their journey.

    Historians such as Dan Jones have weaved through fact and fiction to piece together the true history of the Knights.

    The Knights of Labor began as a secret society of tailors in Philadelphia in The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims started primarily to secure control of holy sites considered sacred by both groups.

    In all, eight major Crusade expeditions occurred between and The bloody, violent and often ruthless From ancient legends to contemporary movies, the Holy Grail has been an object of mystery and But knights were far more than romantic figures—they were a triumph of military technology.

    Accounts from the Middle Ages describe Around , a French knight named Hugues de Payens founded a military order devoted to protecting these pilgrims, calling it the Poor This Day In History.

    Who Were the Knights Templar? The Knights Templars at Work The Knights Templar set up a prosperous network of banks and gained enormous financial influence.

    Expanded Duties of the Knights Though its original purpose was to protect pilgrims from danger, the Knights Templar progressively expanded its duties.

    Knights Templar Defend Holy Land. Origins of the Knights Templar. Crusades The Crusades were a series of religious wars between Christians and Muslims started primarily to secure control of holy sites considered sacred by both groups.

    Who were the Knights Templar?

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    Their fearless style of fighting became a model for other military orders. In the late 12th century, Muslim armies retook Jerusalem and turned the tide of the Crusades, forcing the Knights Templar to relocate several times.

    The Fall of Acre in marked the destruction of the last remaining Crusader refuge in the Holy Land. European support of the military campaigns in the Holy Land began to erode over the decades that followed.

    By , the Knights Templar lost its foothold in the Muslim world and established a base of operations in Paris. There, King Philip IV of France resolved to bring down the order, perhaps because the Templars had denied the indebted ruler additional loans.

    Many of the knights were brutally tortured until they confessed to false charges, which included heresy, homosexuality, financial corruption, devil worshipping, fraud, spitting on the cross and more.

    A few years later, dozens of Templars were burned at the stake in Paris for their confessions. De Molay was executed in The Catholic Church has acknowledged that the persecution of the Knights Templar was unjustified.

    The church claims that Pope Clement was pressured by secular rulers to destroy the order. While most historians agree that the Knights Templar fully disbanded years ago, there are some people who believe the order went underground and remains in existence in some form to this day.

    Currently, there are several international organizations styled after the Knights Templar that the public can join.

    These groups have representatives around the world and aim to uphold the values and traditions of the original medieval order.

    More recently, stories about the legendary Templars have found their way into popular books and movies. The popular novel and film The Da Vinci Code presents a theory that the Templars were involved in a conspiracy to preserve the bloodline of Jesus Christ.

    Who were the Knights Templar?: Busting the Myth of Friday the 13th and the Knights Templar: We strive for accuracy and fairness.

    A knight had to be born of nobility — typically sons of knights or lords. Children of the nobility were cared for by noble foster-mothers in castles until they reached age seven.

    They were placed on an early training regime of hunting with huntsmen and falconers , and academic studies with priests or chaplains.

    Pages then become assistants to older knights in battle, carrying and cleaning armour, taking care of the horses, and packing the baggage.

    They would accompany the knights on expeditions, even into foreign lands. Older pages were instructed by knights in swordsmanship , equestrianism , chivalry, warfare, and combat but using wooden swords and spears.

    When the boy turned 15, he became a squire. During this time the squires continued training in combat and were allowed to own armour rather than borrowing it.

    All of these were even performed while wearing armour. The accolade or knighting ceremony was usually held during one of the great feasts or holidays, like Christmas or Easter , and sometimes at the wedding of a noble or royal.

    The knighting ceremony usually involved a ritual bath on the eve of the ceremony and a prayer vigil during the night.

    On the day of the ceremony, the would-be knight would swear an oath and the master of the ceremony would dub the new knight on the shoulders with a sword.

    Knights were expected, above all, to fight bravely and to display military professionalism and courtesy. When knights were taken as prisoners of war, they were customarily held for ransom in somewhat comfortable surroundings.

    This same standard of conduct did not apply to non-knights archers, peasants, foot-soldiers, etc. Chivalry developed as an early standard of professional ethics for knights, who were relatively affluent horse owners and were expected to provide military services in exchange for landed property.

    During the Middle Ages, this grew from simple military professionalism into a social code including the values of gentility, nobility and treating others reasonably.

    Chivalry and religion were mutually influenced during the period of the Crusades. The early Crusades helped to clarify the moral code of chivalry as it related to religion.

    As a result, Christian armies began to devote their efforts to sacred purposes. As time passed, clergy instituted religious vows which required knights to use their weapons chiefly for the protection of the weak and defenseless, especially women and orphans, and of churches.

    In peacetime, knights often demonstrated their martial skills in tournaments, which usually took place on the grounds of a castle.

    Medieval tournaments were made up of martial sports called hastiludes , and were not only a major spectator sport but also played as a real combat simulation.

    It usually ended with many knights either injured or even killed. One contest was a free-for-all battle called a melee , where large groups of knights numbering hundreds assembled and fought one another, and the last knight standing was the winner.

    The most popular and romanticized contest for knights was the joust. The loser in these tournaments had to turn his armour and horse over to the victor.

    The last day was filled with feasting, dancing and minstrel singing. Besides formal tournaments, they were also unformalized judicial duels done by knights and squires to end various disputes.

    Judicial combat was of two forms in medieval society, the feat of arms and chivalric combat. Weapons were standardized and must be of the same caliber.

    The duel lasted until the other party was too weak to fight back and in early cases, the defeated party were then subsequently executed.

    Examples of these brutal duels were the judicial combat known as the Combat of the Thirty in , and the trial by combat fought by Jean de Carrouges in In this hastilude , a knight or a group of knights would claim a bridge, lane or city gate, and challenge other passing knights to fight or be disgraced.

    One of the greatest distinguishing marks of the knightly class was the flying of coloured banners, to display power and to distinguish knights in battle and in tournaments.

    Armourial rolls were created to record the knights of various regions or those who participated in various tournaments. Knights and the ideals of knighthood featured largely in medieval and Renaissance literature , and have secured a permanent place in literary romance.

    Instructional literature was also created. In the early Renaissance greater emphasis is laid upon courtliness.

    By the end of the 15th century, knights were becoming obsolete as countries started creating their own professional armies that were quicker to train, cheaper and easier to mobilize.

    In the 14th century the use of infantrymen armed with pikes and fighting in close formation also proved effective against heavy cavalry, such as during the Battle of Nancy , when Charles the Bold and his armoured cavalry were decimated by Swiss pikemen.

    Many landowners found the duties of knighthood too expensive and so contented themselves with the use of squires. Mercenaries also became an economic alternative to knights when conflicts arose.

    Armies of the time started adopting a more realistic approach to warfare than the honor-bound code of chivalry.

    Soon, the remaining knights were absorbed into professional armies. Although they had a higher rank than most soldiers because of their valuable lineage, they lost their distinctive identity that previously set them apart from common soldiers.

    They adopted newer technology while still retaining their age-old chivalric traditions. Other orders were established in the Iberian peninsula , under the influence of the orders in the Holy Land and the Crusader movement of the Reconquista:.

    After the Crusades , the military orders became idealized and romanticized, resulting in the late medieval notion of chivalry , as reflected in the Arthurian romances of the time.

    The creation of chivalric orders was fashionable among the nobility in the 14th and 15th centuries, and this is still reflected in contemporary honours systems, including the term order itself.

    Examples of notable orders of chivalry are:. From roughly , purely honorific orders were established, as a way to confer prestige and distinction, unrelated to military service and chivalry in the more narrow sense.

    Such orders were particularly popular in the 17th and 18th centuries, and knighthood continues to be conferred in various countries:.

    There are other monarchies and also republics that also follow this practice. Modern knighthoods are typically conferred in recognition for services rendered to society, which are not necessarily martial in nature.

    The female equivalent is a Dame , for example Dame Julie Andrews. In the United Kingdom , honorific knighthood may be conferred in two different ways:.

    The first is by membership of one of the pure Orders of Chivalry such as the Order of the Garter , the Order of the Thistle and the dormant Order of Saint Patrick , of which all members are knighted.

    The second is being granted honorific knighthood by the British sovereign without membership of an order, the recipient being called Knight Bachelor.

    In the British honours system the knightly style of Sir is accompanied by the given name , and optionally the surname. The style Dame Heather McCartney could be used for the wife of a knight; however, this style is largely archaic and is only used in the most formal of documents, or where the wife is a Dame in her own right such as Dame Norma Major , who gained her title six years before her husband Sir John Major was knighted.

    Since the reign of Edward VII a clerk in holy orders in the Church of England has not normally received the accolade on being appointed to a degree of knighthood.

    He receives the insignia of his honour and may place the appropriate letters after his name or title but he may not be called Sir and his wife may not be called Lady.

    This custom is not observed in Australia and New Zealand, where knighted Anglican clergymen routinely use the title "Sir". Ministers of other Christian Churches are entitled to receive the accolade.

    A knight who is subsequently ordained does not lose his title. A famous example of this situation was The Revd Sir Derek Pattinson , who was ordained just a year after he was appointed Knight Bachelor , apparently somewhat to the consternation of officials at Buckingham Palace.

    A clerk in holy orders who is a baronet is entitled to use the title Sir. Some countries, however, historically did have equivalent honorifics for knights, such as Cavaliere in Italy e.

    Georg Ritter von Trapp. Additionally there remain a few hereditary knights in the Netherlands. In Belgium , honorific knighthood not hereditary can be conferred by the King on particularly meritorious individuals such as scientists or eminent businessmen, or for instance to astronaut Frank De Winne , the second Belgian in space.

    This practice is similar to the conferral of the dignity of Knight Bachelor in the United Kingdom. In addition, there still are a number of hereditary knights in Belgium see below.

    In the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth the monarchs tried to establish chivalric orders but the hereditary lords who controlled the Union did not agree and managed to ban such assemblies.

    They feared the King would use Orders to gain support for absolutist goals and to make formal distinctions among the peerage which could lead to its legal breakup into two separate classes, and that the King would later play one against the other and eventually limit the legal privileges of hereditary nobility.

    The head of state now the President as the acting Grand Master confers knighthoods of the Order to distinguished citizens, foreign monarchs and other heads of state.

    The Order has its Chapter. In continental Europe different systems of hereditary knighthood have existed or do exist.

    Ridder , Dutch for "knight", is a hereditary noble title in the Netherlands. It is the lowest title within the nobility system and ranks below that of " Baron " but above " Jonkheer " the latter is not a title, but a Dutch honorific to show that someone belongs to the untitled nobility.

    The collective term for its holders in a certain locality is the Ridderschap e. Ridderschap van Holland, Ridderschap van Friesland, etc.

    In the Netherlands no female equivalent exists. Before , the history of nobility is separate for each of the eleven provinces that make up the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

    In each of these, there were in the early Middle Ages a number of feudal lords who often were just as powerful, and sometimes more so than the rulers themselves.

    The order also owns the Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors, a money management firm that invests in accordance with Catholic social teachings.

    The order was intended to be a mutual benefit society. This was before most government support programs were established.

    He wanted to provide insurance to care for the widows and orphans left behind. In his own life, he temporarily had to suspend his seminary studies to care for his family after his father died.

    Because of religious and ethnic discrimination, Roman Catholics in the late 19th century were regularly excluded from labor unions, popular fraternal organizations, and other organized groups that provided such social services.

    McGivney intended to create an alternative organization. As a result, younger, healthier members could expect to pay more over the course of their lifetimes than those men who joined when they were older.

    If he remained sick after that, the council to which he belonged determined the sum of money given to him. From the earliest days of the order, members wanted to create a form of hierarchy and recognition for senior members.

    Mullen had proposed a patriotic degree with its own symbolic dress. To prove that good Catholics could also be good Americans, during World War I the Knights supported the war effort and the troops.

    Supreme Knight James A. They were staffed by "secretaries", commonly referred to as "Caseys" for K of C who were generally men above the age of military service.

    The centers provided basic amenities not readily available, such as stationery, hot baths, and religious services. In this sense, the K.

    During the nadir of American race relations , a bogus oath was circulated claiming that Fourth Degree Knights swore to exterminate Freemasons and Protestants.

    As the order did not wish to appear motivated by a "vengeful spirit", it asked for leniency from judges when sentencing offenders.

    After World War I, many native-born Americans had a revival of concerns about assimilation of immigrants and worries about "foreign" values; they wanted public schools to teach children to be American.

    Numerous states drafted laws designed to use schools to promote a common American culture, and in , the voters of Oregon passed the Oregon Compulsory Education Act.

    The law was primarily aimed at eliminating parochial schools , including Catholic schools. Hart , offered to join forces with the order to challenge the law.

    Society of Sisters and in a unanimous decision, the Court held that the act was unconstitutional and that parents, not the state, had the authority to educate children as they thought best.

    Postwar social unrest was also related to the difficulties of absorbing the veterans from the war in the job market. Competition among groups for work heightened tensions.

    In the s there was growing anti-Semitism in the United States related to economic competition and the fears of social change from decades of changed immigration, a lingering anti-German sentiment left over from World War I, and anti-black violence erupted in numerous locations as well.

    To combat the animus targeted at racial and religious minorities, including Catholics, the order formed a historical commission which published a series of books on their contributions, among other activities.

    The Gift of Black Folk , by W. John Paul traveled to the Dominican Republic and Mexico in and Dechant was invited to attend and welcome the Pope to the Americas.

    It was placed before the Congregation for the Causes of Saints in The Father Michael J. McGivney Guild was formed in to promote his cause, and it currently has more than , members.

    McGivney may now be referred to as the " Venerable Servant of God. The order is dedicated to the principles of charity, unity, fraternity, and patriotism.

    A First Degree exemplification ceremony, by which a man joins the order, explicates the virtue of charity. He is said to be a First-Degree Knight of Columbus; after participating in the subsequent degrees, each of which focuses on another virtue, he rises to that status.

    Upon reaching the Third Degree, a gentleman is a full member. Priests do not participate directly in Degree exemplifications as laymen do, but rather take the degree by observation.

    The first ritual handbook, printed in , contained only sections teaching unity and charity. After taking their third degree, knights are eligible to receive their fourth degree, the primary purpose of which is to foster the spirit of patriotism and to encourage active Catholic citizenship.

    Fourth degree members, in addition to being members of their individual councils, are also members of Fourth-Degree assemblies which typically comprise members of several councils.

    As of [update] , there were 3, assemblies worldwide. Fewer than 18 percent of Knights join the Fourth Degree, which is optional. Its members are referred to as "Sir Knight".

    Of a total 1,, Knights in , there were , Fourth Degree Knights. A new Military Overseas Europe Special District was established in to oversee assemblies of military personnel serving on that continent.

    The Color Corps is the most visible arm of the Knights, as they are often seen in parades and other local events wearing their colorful regalia.

    Official dress for the Color Corps is a blue blazer with the emblem as a patch and on the buttons, a white shirt, a Fourth Degree tie, dark gray slacks and a beret with the emblem.

    In warm climates and during warm months, a white dinner jacket may be worn, if done as a unit. Baldrics are worn from the right shoulder to left hip and are color specific by nation.

    In the United States, Panama, and the Philippines, baldrics are red, white, and blue. Red and white baldrics are used in Canada and Poland; red, white, and green in Mexico; and blue and white in Guatemala.

    On August 1, , at the th annual Supreme Convention in St. Anderson announced a new uniform of the Fourth Degree to include a blue blazer with the emblem as a patch and on the buttons, a white shirt, a Fourth Degree tie, dark gray slacks and a beret with the emblem.

    Faithful navigators and past faithful navigators are permitted to carry a white handled silver sword. Masters and vice supreme masters, as well as former masters and former vice supreme masters, are also denoted by their gold swords.

    Charity is the foremost principle of the Knights of Columbus. According to one commentator, "there is hardly a corner of the Catholic world where the resources of this international force have not left an impression.

    On average in , each Knight of Columbus contributed 38 hours of community service. United in Charity, a general, unrestricted endowment fund , was introduced at the Supreme Council meeting to support and ensure the overall long-term charitable and philanthropic goals of the order.

    The fund is wholly managed, maintained, and operated by Knights of Columbus Charities, Inc. The need for a reserve fund for times of epidemic was seen from the earliest days, but it was rejected several times before finally being established in Since its first loan to St.

    Rose Church in Meriden, Connecticut , in the late s, the Knights of Columbus have made loans to parishes, dioceses, and other Catholic institutions.

    Late in it was learned that the land upon which Yankee Stadium was built was for sale. During this time, the amount of money invested in common stock also increased.

    Best list of all life insurance companies in North America. Products include permanent and term life insurance , as well as annuities , long term care insurance , and disability insurance.

    As of [update] there were 1,, knights, and membership has grown each year for 44 consecutive years. Each member belongs to one of 15, councils around the world.

    In addition, there is a "round table" [nb 6] presence in Lithuania. Knights of Columbus councils , Fourth Degree assemblies , and Columbian Squire circles have similar officers.

    In the councils, officer titles are prefixed with "Worthy", while in assemblies officer titles are prefixed with "Faithful".

    The Supreme Council is the governing body of the order and is composed of elected representatives from each jurisdiction. The Supreme Council comprises [85].

    In a manner similar to shareholders at an annual meeting, the Supreme Council elects insurance members to serve three year terms on the Supreme Board of Directors.

    They then choose from their own number the other senior operating officials of the order, including the Supreme Knight and Deputy Supreme Knight , a Supreme Secretary, a Supreme Treasurer, a Supreme Advocate, and a Supreme Physician, each of whom serves a one-year term.

    Directors, other than Supreme Officers or Assistant Supreme Officers, are limited to serving three years. The Knights of Columbus invites the head of state of every country in which they operate to the annual Supreme Convention.

    President Ronald Reagan spoke at the Centennial Convention in Bush appeared in Bush sent videotaped messages before he attended in person at the convention.

    Fourth degree members belong to one of 3, assemblies, including 75 created in The college councils program started with the chartering of Notre Dame Council in , [] drawn from student members of the local Santa Maria Council Since its earliest days, the Knights of Columbus has been a "Catholic anti-defamation society.

    As part of the effort, the order distributed pamphlets, and lecturers toured the country speaking on how Catholics could love and be loyal to America.

    It would take an additional three years to collect the total amount. Since its founding, the Knights of Columbus has been involved in evangelization.

    The creation of the 4th Degree, with its emphasis on patriotism, performing a valuable anti-defamation function as well as asserting claims to Americanism.

    It was with this experience in setting up educational programs that they were able to run education and occupational skills training for veterans returning from World War I.

    In , the Knights started the Catholic Information Service CIS to provide low-cost Catholic publications for the general public as well as for parishes, schools, retreat houses, military installations, correctional facilities, legislatures, the medical community, and for individuals who request them.

    Since then, CIS has printed millions of booklets, and thousands of people have enrolled in CIS correspondence and on-line courses. This was "in response to blatant anti-Catholic bias in other religious media in order to educate non-Catholics about the beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church.

    The order sponsors a number of international awards. The first, the Gaudium et Spes Award , is named after the document from the Second Vatican Council , and is the highest honor bestowed by the order.

    The second international award, also only given "when merited", is the Caritas Award. Named for the theological virtue alternatively translated as either charity or love, it recognizes "extraordinary works of charity and service.

    The Fourth Degree emblem features a dove, a cross, and a globe. The Ku Klux Klan: As a federation, it represented several national craft unions that each retained autonomous operations. The current Supreme Knight, Carl A. In each of casino next to mgm in vegas, there were in the early Middle Ages a number of feudal lords who often were just as powerful, and sometimes more so than the rulers themselves. Georg Ritter von Trapp. Many landowners login kalixa the duties of knighthood too expensive and so contented themselves with the use of squires. An Encyclopedia of the Medieval World, Volume 1. Elfmeterschießen dfb pokal than ipad online casino percent of Knights join the Fourth Degree, which casino kundenservice optional. The nobles also provided their knights with necessities, such as lodging, food, armour, weapons, horses, and money. The early Crusades helped to clarify the moral code of chivalry as it related to religion.

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